CADERNO DE CIÊNCIAS AGRÁRIAS
Agrarian Sciences Journal
Characterization and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber concentrates as potential
prebiotic ingredients for use in fish nutrition
Fernanda Rodrigues Goulart
1
*; Marina Osmari Dalcin
2
; Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto
3
; Ana Betine Beutinger
Bender
4
; Leila Picolli da Silva
5
; Alexandra Pretto
6
Abstract
Dietary bers are formed by non-starch polysaccharides as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums, mucilages,
β-glucans, among others. These constituents have prebiotic properties and are therefore not digested in the gut,
reaching intact in the colon and altering the microflora of the colon. In developing, beneficial microflora produces
physiological effects capable of improving the life of the host. Thus, the knowledge of the biological and functional
properties of dietary fibers has led to the development of methods of obtaining these compounds for possible use in
animal nutrition. Then, this study aimed to obtain dietary fiber concentrates (DFC) from different agro-industrial
sources and evaluate their respective chemical composition and physicochemical properties. The DFC - mucilage,
pectin, and βglucan + mannan (βG+M) were obtained from linseed, citrus pulp, and brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae), respectively, through different physicochemical processes. The chemical composition revealed that
the predominant component in all DFC were dietary fiber and the insoluble fraction. The DFC that obtained most
extraction yield was βG+M (19.81% ± 8.54), followed by pectin (14.54% ± 2.72), and mucilage (7.18% ± 1.54).
The mucilage and pectin composition have greater monosaccharide diversity since the βG+M consisted primarily of
mannose (74.5%) and glucose (24.3%). The pectin showed numerically lower hydration capacity than the other DFC.
For the oil binding ability, all DFC had similar values. In this study, the DFC presented nutritional and technological
characteristics that indicate potential application of the agro-industrial sources as a prebiotic for fish supplementation.
Keywords: β-glucan+mannan. Fish feeds. Linseed. Mucilage. Pectin.
Caracterização e propriedades físico químicas de concentrados de fibras alimentares como
potenciais ingredientes prebióticos para uso na nutrição de peixes
Resumo
As bras alimentares são formadas por polissacarídeos não amiláceos como celulose, hemicelulose, pectinas, gomas,
mucilagens, β-glicanos, entre outros. Estes constituintes m propriedades prebióticas e, portanto, não são digeridos
no intestino, atingindo intactos e alterando a microflora do cólon. Quando desenvolvida, a microflora benéfica pro-
duz efeitos fisiológicos capazes de melhorar a vida do hospedeiro. Desta forma, o conhecimento das propriedades
biológicas e funcionais das fibras alimentares levou ao desenvolvimento de métodos de obtenção desses compostos
para possível uso em nutrição animal. Logo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo a obtenção de Concentrados de
1Universidade Federal do Pampa. Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6096-0132
2Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1922-1607
3Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5226-6957
4Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6973-9127
5Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1721-094X
6Universidade Federal do Pampa. Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5874-9108
*Autor para correspondência: fegoulart13@yahoo.com.br
Recebido para publicação em 27 de janeiro de 2020. Aceito para publicação em 30 de março de 2020.
e-ISSN: 2447-6218 / ISSN: 2447-6218 / © 2009, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Todos os direitos reservados.
Goulart F. R. et al.
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Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 12, p. 01–09, 2020. e-ISSN: 2447-6218 / ISSN: 1984-6738
Fibras Alimentares (CFAs) a partir de diferentes fontes agroindustrial e avaliar suas respectivas composição química
e propriedades físico-químicas. O CFAs (mucilagem, pectina e βglicana + manana (βG+M)) foram obtidos a partir
da linhaça, polpa cítrica e levedura de cervejaria (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), respectivamente, através de diferentes
processos físico-químicos. A composição química revelou que o componente predominante em todos os CFAs foram
fibra alimentar e a fração insolúvel. O CFA que obteve maior rendimento de extração foi βG+M (19.81% ± 8.54),
seguido pela pectina (14.54% ± 2.72), e mucilagem (7.18% ± 1.54). A composição da mucilagem e pectina tive-
ram maior diversidade de monossacarídeos, uma vez que a βG+M consistiu principalmente de manose (74.5%) e
glicose (24.3%). A pectina apresentou numericamente menor capacidade de hidratação que os demais CFAs. Para a
capacidade de ligação ao óleo, todos os CFAs apresentaram valores similares. Neste estudo, os CFAs apresentaram
características nutricional e tecnológica que indicaram potencial de aplicação das fontes agroindustrial como um
prebiótico para a suplementação de peixes.
Palavras-chave: β-glucana+manana. Alimentação de peixes. Linhaça. Mucilagem. Pectina.
Introduction
For a long time, dietary fibers represented the
inert portion of food because of their low-energy content.
However, the interest in dietary fibers has been increa-
sing due to their beneficial effects on the microflora of
the gastrointestinal tract (Bach Knudsen, 2001; Wenk,
2001; Montagne et al., 2003).
Dietary fibers are formed by non-starch poly-
saccharides, among which we highlight cellulose, hemi-
cellulose, pectins, gums, mucilages, β-glucans, among
others (Chen et al., 1988; Mudgil and Barak, 2013).
These components have been receiving a great deal of
attention because of their prebiotic properties, as they
are not digested in the intestine and remain intact when
they reach the colon and are metabolized by beneficial
bacteria, which alter the colonic microflora. This leads
to a healthy bacterial microflora capable of inducing
important physiological effects on the health and well-
-being of the host (Catalani et al., 2003).
In the last ve decades, the cultivation of aquatic
organisms has increased steadily (FAO, 2014). Thus, se-
veral strategies have been adopted to ensure an increase
in production and stock breeding health, including the
use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feeds. Howe-
ver, the use of these products has been restricted due to
their potential for the development of resistant bacteria,
hazards to the environment, suppression of the immu-
ne system of the animals and risk of bioaccumulation
in sh (Ringo et al., 2010). For these reasons, the use
of alternative growth promoters in feeds, particularly
prebiotics, is currently recommended. Moreover, adding
prebiotics in sh nutrition is also important because they
are substances rather than living organisms. Therefore,
they are more resistant to processing as well as extrusion
and pelletization (voa et al., 2013).
Knowledge of the biological and functional pro
-
perties of dietary fibers has recently led to the develop-
ment of methods of obtaining these compounds for use
in animal nutrition. For this reason, the present study
aimed to obtain dietary ber concentrates, with prebiotic
potential to apply to sh nutrition, from different agro-in-
dustrial sources and evaluate their chemical composition
and physicochemical properties.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted in the Fish Farming
Laboratory, Department of Animal Science of the Univer-
sidad Federal of Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS, Brazil).
Raw material
Yeast biomass (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was
kindly provided by Santamate Indústria e Comércio Ltda
(Santa Maria, RS, Brazil). Linseed (Linum uistatissimum
L.) was donated by Giovelli & Cia Ltda (Guarani das Mis-
sões, RS, Brazil). The citrus pulp, composed by rind or
flavedo, albedo, membranes, and seeds, was processed
in our laboratory.
Obtention of dietary fiber concentrates
β-glucan+mannan was obtained from brewer’s
yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) according to the metho-
dology described by Goulart et al. (2017a) and Chaud et
al. (2007), with some modifications. Initially, aqueous
yeast extract was centrifuged at 3500 rpm (15 min) and
washed three times with distilled water at a 1:1 ratio
(w/v). After this, the extract was subjected to autolysis at
49°C for 8 h and was centrifuged at 3500 rpm (15 min).
The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was
collected, which correspondent the cell wall. This fraction
was submitted to an alkaline treatment with NaOH 1%
(1:3 w/v), under agitation and heating (75°C/20 min).
Subsequently, the sample was neutralized with HCl 2N,
centrifuged at 3500 rpm (15 min), and washed three
times with distilled water at a 1:1 ratio (w/v). The final
precipitate was represented by the β-glucan+mannan
fraction, which was dried at 40°C for 24 h.
The procedure of mucilage extraction from lin-
seed was performed according to Goulart et al. (2013)
in an aqueous medium (10% w/v), at 60 to 80°C with
constant agitation, for 150 min. The supernatant was
Characterization and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber concentrates as potential prebiotic ingredients for use in fish nutrition
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Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 12, p. 01–09, 2020. e-ISSN: 2447-6218 / ISSN: 1984-6738
removed and ethanol (final concentration of 75% v/v)
was added in order to precipitate the fiber fraction. The
precipitate was collected, dried in a forced-air-drying
oven at 60°C/24 h, and ground in a laboratory mill.
Pectin was obtained from the citrus pulp accor-
ding to the method described by Calliari (2015). Before
extraction, the orange juice residue (flavedo, albedo,
membranes, and seeds) was washed with water, crushed
manually, dried in a forced-air-drying oven (50°C/24 h),
and ground in a laboratory mill to obtain the dried citrus
pulp. Then, pectin was extracted in an aqueous medium
(8% w/v) at 100°C for 1 h. After cooling, the mixture
was centrifuged (3500 rpm/10 min), the precipitate was
discarded, and ethanol was added to the supernatant at a
1:1 ratio (v/v) to precipitate the pectin. This mixture was
left at 5°C for 24 h in order for pectin to be precipitated.
Finally, the precipitate was dried in a forced-air-drying
oven (55°C/24-48 h) and ground in a laboratory mill.
Chemical composition analysis
Samples, linseed, mucilage, dried citrus pulp,
pectin, brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and
β-glucan+mannan, were analyzed to determine dry
matter (DM) (number 930.15), ash (number 942.05),
and crude protein (CP - N x 6.25) according to AOAC
(1990) methods (number 954.01). Fat was measured
according to Bligh and Dyer method (1959). Total dietary
fiber (TDF), soluble fiber (SF), and insoluble fiber (IF)
content were determined according to the enzymatic
gravimetric method (number 991.43) (AOAC, 1995).
Extraction yield
The extraction yield was calculated by the ra-
tio between the final weight product and the weight of
sample submitted to extraction.
Monosaccharide composition
The determination of monosaccharide composi-
tion was carried out according to Biermann (1989). Ini-
tially, samples were hydrolyzed with triuoroacetic acid
1 M for 5 h at 100°C. Upon completion of the hydrolysis,
the excess acid was removed by evaporation. After total
acid hydrolysis, the monosaccharides were solubilized in
distilled water and reduced by adding, approximately, 10
mg of sodium borohydride for 16 h at C (Wolfrom and
Thompson, 1963b). Alditols were submitted to acetyla-
tion (Wolfrom and Thompson, 1963a). The extraction of
alditol acetate was performed by the addition of chloro-
form and subsequent elimination of pyridine in succes-
sive treatments with 5% copper sulphate and distilled
water. After solvent evaporation, the alditol acetates
were subjected to gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) for
determination of neutral monosaccharide composition.
The resulting alditol acetates were analyzed by
GLC in a Trace GC Ultra chromatograph (Thermo Elec-
tron Corporation- EUA) equipped with a DB-225 (0.25
mm x 30 m) capillary column. The injector and flame
ionization detector (FID) temperatures were 250°C and
300°C, respectively. The oven temperature was set from
100 to 215°C, at a heating rate of 40°C/min. Helium was
used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.
Uronic acids content were measured by the
method of Blumenkrantz and Asboe-Hansen (1973).
Galacturonic acid was used as standard solution and
the absorbance was measured at 520 nm.
Physicochemical properties
The water holding capacity (WHC) and oil bin-
ding capacity (OBC) were determined according to Mc-
Connell et al. (1974) and Abdul-Hamid and Luan (2000),
respectively. Sample (1.0 g) was weighed, loaded into
graduated test tube, 20 mL of distilled water (for WHC)
or oil (for OBC) was added, and the mixture was stirred
until complete homogenization. Then, it was left at room
temperature for 24 h. After, the mixture was centrifuged
(3500 rpm, 1 h), the supernatant was removed, and the
tube (sample + absorbed water or oil) was weighed.
The results were expressed as the amount of water or
oil retained by the sample per gram.
Results and discussion
Chemical composition
All resulting dietary fiber concentrates (DFC)
showed high total dietary fiber (TDF) content (Table
1), which proved that the methodologies used for fiber
concentration were suitable for the proposed aim. For
mucilage obtained from linseed, Monego (2009) men-
tioned higher levels for TDF (85.07%) and SF (73.21%).
The contrast in results can be explained by differences
in the variety of the raw material employed as well as
by the procedure used for obtaining the food products
(Kaewmanee et al., 2014).
Although pectin had the lowest TDF, this DFC
had the highest SF content (31.47 ± 1.75). This fraction
presents an important role for the natural microflora of
colon. In the intestine, soluble bers are fermented easily
and more quickly than the insoluble bers (Puupponen-Pi-
miä et al., 2002; Catalani et al., 2003). Short-chain fatty
acids (SCFA) are produced through fermentation (Saad,
2006) and they are responsible for various benefits to the
host, such as regulation of epithelial proliferation and
differentiation of the colonic mucosa and improvement
of blood ow and mucus production. Additionally, SCFA
are the preferred energy source for the colonocytes, de-
crease pH in the colon, maintain balance in the intestinal
microflora, and provide beneficial effects on sodium
and water absorption, lipid and glucose metabolism,
pancreatic secretion, and other hormones (Catalani et
al., 2003).
Goulart F. R. et al.
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Table 1 – Chemical composition of the raw samples and the dietary fiber concentrates.
Components
Samples
Linseed Mucilage Citrus pulp Pectin Yeast βG+M
TDF 53.09±10.11 61.73±3.25 47.52±2.08 32.76±1.05 11.88±2.38 64.18±0.31
IF 38.19±8.74 39.50±5.44 25.37±0.39 1.29±0.71 1.32±0.15 60.98±0.00
SF 14.90±1.37 22.23±2.19 22.16±1.69 31.47±1.75 10.56±2.23 3.2±0.31
CP 16.09±0.11 11.29±0.95 5.67±0.25 5.10±0.15 39.44±0.10 10.31±0.46
Fat 31.59±0.57 2.67±0.08 7.65±0.00 0.56±0.11 2.24±0.45 1.20±0.11
Moisture 7.76±0.23 13.25±0.21 11.51±0.01 15.39±0.15 68.76±0.79 10.55±0.00
Ash 3.41±0.09 6.65±0.05 3.25±0.13 3.62±0.03 7.49±0.33 7.41±0.15
Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) (n=3). TDF: total dietary fiber; IF: insoluble fiber; SF: soluble fiber; CP: crude protein;
βG+M: βglucan+mannan.
For β-glucan+mannan, an increase was observed
in TDF content compared to in nature yeast. Similar
content (69.7%) was reported by Chaud et al. (2007).
However, these authors reported that 60.2% of this ber
is in the soluble form, which is contrary to the ndings of
the present study. The results suggested that higher levels
of insoluble fibers are associated with the shape of the
β-glucan present in the yeast. According to Magnani and
Castro-Gómez (2008), there are two fractions of β-(1-3)
glucan on the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one
soluble and the other insoluble. The insoluble portion
represents the largest cell wall component, while the
soluble portion accounts for 15 to 20%. Furthermore,
Sinha et al. (2011) reported that mannans are highly
insoluble polysaccharides in water and very dense.
In works carried out by Adorian et al. (2019),
Goulart et al. (2017a) and Goulart et al. (2017b) positive
results were observed on the growth, metabolism and
immune system of jundiás (Rhamdia quelen) fed with
diets supplemented with dietary fiber concentrates, de-
monstrating that they are potential candidates to exert
prebiotic effect on fish nutrition, since prebiotics are
known to act by stimulating the absorption of certain
nutrients, altering microbial metabolism, and in addition
to increasing the levels of antibodies and macrophage
activity (Saad, 2006).
In relation to other nutrients, the procedures
employed for fiber concentration reduced the fat content.
The decrease is probably due to the treatment used for
ber solubilization, combined with the hydrophilic nature
of the solvent, has not caused translocation of fat to the
resulting extract. Likewise, CP content was reduced in
the resulting dietary ber fractions. For moisture and ash
content, the mean values found in mucilage and pectin
were similar to those found in the literature (Cui and
Mazza, 1996; Kliemann et al., 2009). However, Chaud et
al. (2007) reported an ash content 40 to 50% lower than
the findings found in the present study. Nevertheless, in
general, all the DFC had low ash content, which is a good
indication of sample purity (Kliemann et al., 2009).
Extraction yield
The extraction yields of the different DFC obtai-
ned from agro-industrial sources are shown in Figure 1.
The DFC that had the highest extraction was βG+M with
a mean of 19.81% yield. In the literature, there is little
data that allow a comparison of the extraction yield of
this fraction. Published studies assessed the fractions in
isolation, as in the work by Chaud and Sgarbieri (2006),
who obtained 25.13% extraction yield for mannans and
42.92% for glucans from the cell wall of semi-purified
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For pectin, the extraction yield
was 14.54%. On the other hand, Calliari (2015) evalua-
ted various methodologies for pectin extraction from
citrus pulp and observed higher yields for acid extraction
(39.23% for citric acid and 26.70% for acetic acid). For
pectin obtained from passion fruit peel, citric acid was
also the best extracting agent, resulting in about 70%
yield. In the same study, the extraction yield was lower
for nitric and hydrochloric acids - 38 and 26%, respec-
tively (Kliemann et al., 2009). Thermal extraction of
pectin was not as efficient as acid extraction, which is
generally used in the food industry (Canteri et al., 2012)
and has higher extraction yields. However, this procedure
can be considered a cost-effective and environmentally
friendly method because it does not generate toxic waste
in the environment and has low cost. The industries has
faced an aggravation to the environment, the residues
generated in the production, therefore it is urgent the
adoption of actions that aim to reduce the generation of
residues.
The extraction yield of mucilage, 7.18%, was con-
sistent with other results found in the literature (Qian et
al., 2012). Fedeniuk and Biliaderis (1994) tested different
methods to extract of linseed mucilage and observed a
lower extraction yield (3.6%) using low-temperature
water (4°C). On the other hand, when applying higher
Characterization and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber concentrates as potential prebiotic ingredients for use in fish nutrition
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temperatures the mucilage had higher yield (9.4%), which
is similar to the ndings in the present study. Likewise,
Cui et al. (1994) observed a higher extraction yield of
mucilage using high temperatures between 85-90°C, pH
6.5-7.0, and water:seed ratio equal to 13. It is sugges-
ted that the high temperatures cause the removal of a
greater amount of free water, increasing the extraction
yield (Kaushik et al. 2017). Besides the afore mentioned
features, the extraction yield of mucilage depends on
the culture environment and variety of this grain (Qian
et al., 2012).
Figure 1 Extraction yield for mucilage, pectin, and βglucan+mannan (βG+M) obtained from agro-industrial sources.
Monosaccharide composition
The monomers that comprise the bers are classi-
ed as pentoses - arabinose and xylose, hexoses - glucose,
galactose and mannose, 6-deoxihexoses - rhamnose and
fucose, and uronic, glucuronic, and galacturonic acids
(Meurer and Hayashi, 2003). In addition, knowledge of
the polysaccharide composition is extremely important,
because the physiological impact of the fibers depends
on the sugar residues and the nature of the connections
between these residues (Sinha et al., 2011).
In the present study, mucilage and pectin have the
greatest diversity of monosaccharide (Table 2). The mo-
nosaccharide composition present in mucilage was similar
to the ndings in the literature (Fedeniuk and Biliaderis
1994; Oomah et al., 1995; Qian et al., 2012). Among the
monosaccharide present, xylose, galactose and arabinose
were found in a greater amount. According to Ringo
et al. (2010), xylose oligomers (xylooligosaccharides)
promote the bifidobacteria growth acting as prebiotics.
Similarly, galactose molecules (galactooligosaccharides)
and arabinose + xylose (arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides)
have been widely used as prebiotic source for sh feeds.
Table 2 – Monosaccharide composition of dietary fiber concentrates obtained from different agro-industrial sources.
Components (%)
Rha Fuc Ara Xyl Man Gal Glc UA
Mucilage 11 3 15.5 35.4 0 17.1 6.9 11.1
Pectin 2.2 0 21.6 1.2 1 9.4 42.9 21.7
βG+M 0 0 0 0 74.5 1.2 24.3 0
Results are expressed as mean (n=3). Rha: rhamnose; Fuc: fucose; Ara: arabynose; Xyl: xylose; Man: manose; Gal: galactose; Glc: glucose; UA:
uronic acid; βglucan+mannan.
Glucose, arabinose, and galactose were the main
neutral monosaccharide found in pectin. For commercial
pectin, Müller-Maatsch et al. (2016) obtained a similar
composition - higher levels of glucose, galactose, and
rhamnose, but in different concentrations than the fin-
dings in the present study. According to BeMiller and
Huber (2010), the composition and properties of pectin
vary according to their source, the process used during
preparation, and subsequent treatments. Regarding the
functionality of non-starch polysaccharides present in
pectin, Canteri et al. (2012) reported that the benecial
effects of the pectin chain can be attributed to its ability
Goulart F. R. et al.
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to be transformed into short chain fatty acids by the
action of pectinolytic enzyme-producing bacteria (Ae-
robacillus, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, and Enterococcus).
Hotchkiss et al. (2003) analyzed the in vitro fermentation
of oligosaccharides derived from pectin extracted from
Valencia oranges and concluded that these components
exert bifidogenic effects and promote the increase of
acetate, propionate, and butyrate after fermentation.
For βG+M, monosaccharides found in larger amounts
were mannose (74.5%), followed by glucose (24.3%), and
galactose (1.2%). According to Pinto (2012), some mono-
saccharides, as xylose and galactose, are associated with
mannoproteins, which may be a probable explanation
for the galactose content found in the βG+M fraction. In
relation to the benecial effects of the components present
in βG+M, the mannose units (mannanoligosaccharide)
are responsible for increasing the performance of fish
and feed efciency. Additionally, these constituents offers
protection against pathogens by leveraging the local and
systemic immune system and strengths gut integrity and
functionality (Sinha et al., 2011; Torrecillas et al., 2014).
β-glucan has shown potential prebiotic due to its immu-
nomodulatory effect. When it is recognized by specific
cellular receptors, enhances the immune response of the
host (Magnani and Castro-Gómez, 2008).
Physicochemical properties
The physicochemical properties of dietary fibers
have important metabolic and physiological effects on
the body of animals. This is directly related to source of
fiber and processing. Processing can result in important
changes that must be taken into account, depending on
the final destination and the properties of the product
intended for commercialization (Zaragoza et al., 2001).
The values found for water holding capacity
(WHC) and oil binding capacity (OBC) are shown in
Figure 2. In this study, mucilage showed high WHC. In
biological conditions, high levels of fiber intake coupled
with high water holding capacity causes greater bolus
volume, more satiety, increased viscosity of solutions
in the gastrointestinal tract, delayed gastric emptying,
among other effects (Brito et al., 2008; Souza et al., 2008),
reflecting negatively on the zootechnical performance
of sh. These characteristics are not desirable in sh
nutrition.
Figure 2 – Physicochemical properties of the raw samples and the dietary fiber concentrates. CP: citrus pulp; βG+M:
βglucan+mannan; Yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Although pectin had the highest SF content,
this fraction had lower WHC than raw citrus pulp. It is
suggested that pectin had this behavior due to lower TDF
content. Furthermore, Macagnan et al. (2014) observed
lower WHC for orange pulp, even with higher SF levels
compared with the other ingredients. This author attri-
buted the result to the low amount of dietary fiber and
the presence of free pectin in this byproduct.
The βG+M fraction had higher WHC compared
with in nature yeast. This behavior may be related to the
structure of β-glucan, because unlike cellulose, bindings
between glucose units are variable, causing a branched
structure and smaller size. These properties influence
their solubility, allowing them to form viscous solutions,
and acquire greater hydration capacity (Mudgil and
Barak, 2013).
Characterization and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber concentrates as potential prebiotic ingredients for use in fish nutrition
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The OBC quantifies how much lipid a fiber is
capable of absorbing. This physicochemical property is
associated with the fiber’s ability to bind substances in
the intestine, as well as bile salts, acids, and choleste-
rol (Souza et al., 2008). There was a small increase in
OBC for pectin and mucilage, and a slight reduction for
βG+M (Figure 2). However, OBC was similar for all DFC
obtained in the present study. Thus, it is suggested that
regardless of the origin of the extracted fiber, the beha-
vior of binding to substances in the intestine is similar.
Monosaccharide composition, the nature of bin-
ding between monosaccharides, solubility, and physico-
chemical properties are features that directly affect the
functional properties of polysaccharides (Tavernari et
al., 2008; Bemiller and Huber, 2010).
Conclusion
Based on the results, all dietary ber concentrates
obtained from different agro-industrial sources showed
nutritional and technological properties that indicate
potential application as prebiotic ingredients for fish
feeds.
Acknowledgements
The authors thank the Conselho Nacional de
Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for
Research scholarship (Leila Picolli da Silva), Coordena-
ção de Aperfeiçoamento de Nível Superior (CAPES) for
Doctoral scholarship (Fernanda Rodrigues Goulart) and
Alltech
®
, Giovelli & Cia Ltda and Santamate Indústria e
Comércio Ltda companies for donating the samples.
Ethics Committee Approval
The study was approved by the Animal Ethics
Commission of the Federal University of Santa Maria
under number 23081.009051/2014-53.
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