CADERNO DE CIÊNCIAS AGRÁRIAS
Agrarian Sciences Journal
Technical feasibility of forest management: a case study in a cerrado sensu stricto Legal
Reserve in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil
Patrícia Noscilene Silva Campos
1
, Natielle Gomes Cordeiro
2
*, Kelly Marianne Guimarães Pereira
3
, Adriana
Leandra Assis
4
, Carlos Alberto Araújo Júnior
5
, Christian Dias Cabacinha
6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2020.20601
Abstract
The Cerrado domain is considered as one of the global hotspots, although studies upon management in this vegetation
type have many gaps in the forest literature. Thus, it’s important to propose viable alternatives to its use. This study
aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of forest management in a legal reserve of cerrado sensu stricto in Minas
Gerais state, as support to the local increased demand for firewood. A forest inventory was applied from systematic
samplings of 10 plots, based on the diameter criteria at 0.30 m above ground (DAG) ≥ than 5 cm. The Shannon di-
versity index (H’) and Pielou’s equability (J) were used. Furthermore, diametric distribution models and the diameter
classes were evaluated by De Liocourt quotient. We observed that the Shannon diversity was 2.61 nats.ind
and the
Pielou (J) equability was 0.74. The De Liocourt quotient showed a non-constant mean value of 1.97 between the
diameter classes. None of the fitted models showed results likewise the frequency observed in the study. The total
wood volume estimated was 2,189.6765 m
3
. The study area possibly suffered anthropic interventions, resulting both
low volumetric yield and species diversity. Thus, the forest management to the legal reserve area was considered
unfeasible, as it does not present technical sustainability.
Keywords: Sustainable management. Forest structure. Firewood demand. Brazilian savanna.
Viabilidade técnica de manejo florestal: um estudo de caso em uma reserva legal de
cerrado sensu stricto no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil
Resumo
O Cerrado é considerado como um dos hotspots mundiais, no entanto, estudos em manejo sustentável nesse domínio
são escassos na literatura florestal. Assim, é importante propor alternativas viáveis para a utilização de seus recursos.
Esse estudo objetivou avaliar a viabilidade técnica de manejo florestal em uma reserva legal de cerrado sensu stricto
em Minas Gerais, como suporte a demanda de lenha para a comunidade rural. Realizou-se o inventário florestal a
partir da amostragem sistemática de 10 parcelas, utilizando o critério de inclusão diâmetro à 0,30 m do solo (DAS)
de 5 cm. Calculou-se o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’) e equabilidade de Pielou (J). Realizou-se o ajuste de
modelos de distribuição diamétrica e verificou o balanceamento a partir do quociente de De Liocourt. A diversidade
1
Forest engineer. São João da Ponte, MG. Brazil.
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2084-0563
2
Federal University of Lavras. Department of Forest Sciences. Lavras, MG. Brazil.
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8460-4589
3
Federal University of Lavras. Departament of Ecology and Conservation. Lavras, MG. Brazil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2886-8795
4
Federal University of Minas Gerais. Institute of Agrarian Science. Montes Claros, MG. Brazil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0723-6935
5
Federal University of Minas Gerais. Institute of Agrarian Science. Montes Claros, MG. Brazil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0909-8633
6
Federal University of Minas Gerais. Institute of Agrarian Science. Montes Claros, MG. Brazil.
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8148-083X
*Corresponding author: natiellegcordeiro@gmail.com
Received may, 13, 2020. Accepted: august, 06, 2020.
e-ISSN: 2447-6218 / ISSN: 2447-6218 / © 2009, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Todos os direitos reservados.
Campos, P. N. S. et al.
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Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 12, p. 01–10, https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2020.20601
de Shannon (H’) foi 2,61 nats.ind
-1
e a equabilidade de Pielou (J) de 0,74. O quociente de De Liocourt apresentou um
valor médio não constante entre as classes de 1,97. Nenhum dos modelos ajustados se aderiu à frequência observada
no estudo. O volume de madeira estimado foi de 2.189,6765 m
³
. A área de estudo possivelmente sofreu intervenções
antrópicas, resultando em um baixo rendimento volumétrico e diversidade de espécies. A implementação do manejo
florestal para a área de reserva legal foi considerada inviável, pois não apresenta sustentabilidade técnica.
Palavras-chave: Manejo sustentável. Estrutura florestal. Demanda de madeira. Cerrado.
Introduction
The Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) covers more
than 2 million km², around 22% of the Brazilian territory
and is known for its high fauna and flora diversity, as well
as large amount of endemic species (Strassburg et al.,
2017). Among its main phytophysiognomies, the Cerrado
domain include riparian forest, grasslands, woodlands
and rupestrian grasslands, being considered as one of
the world hotspots for conservation (Myers et al., 2000).
Also, it harbors a diversity of woody, medicinal and fruit
species, which together with its fauna, contribute to the
environmental balance. Moreover, the domain has great
importance to water resources conservation (Durigan et
al., 2011; Ferreira et al., 2016; Oliveira-Filho, 2009).
The devastation of Cerrado areas for economic
purposes, due to the constant and growing demand for
timber and non-timber products, implies in the need
to propose viable alternatives to natural resources in a
long-term use (Paparelli and Henkes, 2012; Pereira et al.,
2012). Hence, sustainable forest management plan has
been considered as the main alternative to ensure an ade-
quate exploration, ensuring the biodiversity conservation
and preservation (Scarano et al., 2014). In other words,
the management plan enables the use of available resour-
ces in the native forests through mitigating alternatives
which may imply in a low-impact generation, as well as
achieving economic, social and environmental success.
Therefore, protected areas such as the Legal Reserve can
be used to timber and non-timber products extraction,
as long as it is based on a sustainable management plan
approved by the competent authority (Brasil 2012; Braz
et al., 2012; Kanashiro, 2014; Minas Gerais, 2013).
The Legal Reserve area (LR) was instituted in
national level by the Forest Code, being regulated Federal
Law 12651/2012 and, for Minas Gerais state, by State
Law 20922/2013. The LR is considered a legally protected
area that aims to maintain biodiversity and ensure the
environment balance (Brasil, 2012; Minas Gerais, 2013).
Considering properties with Cerrado vegetation which
are not in the Legal Amazon, the area destined to the
Legal Reserve must be equal to or greater than 20% of
the property total area (Brasil, 2012; Borges and Rezen-
de, 2011). Further, the Legal Reserve has specifications
regarding its exploitation, in which clearcutting and land
use for non-conservation purpose are prohibited. Howe-
ver, it is possible to manage the LR sustainably, as long
as authorized by the competent authority considering
establishment of guideline and consistent techniques
(Froufe and Seoane 2011; Oliveira and Wolski, 2012).
The natural resources provided by native forests
subsidize the rural communities demand that live in
their surroundings. In this way, the timber and non-tim-
ber products are sources of income for the population.
However, in most cases these resources are used in a
predatory practice, without a professional assistance,
management plan and environmental permits (Costa
and Mitja, 2010; Pereira et al., 2012). Besides that, there
is a lack of information in the literature on the Cerrado
management, especially regarding the technical feasibility
of sustainable wood harvesting.
In this sense, the decision-making regarding
forest resources requires knowledge about the forest
structure and composition, thus performing technical
analyses from the floristic, phytosociology, horizontal,
vertical, parametric and diametric structures of the forest
community (Calegari et al., 2010; Chaves et al., 2013;
Klauberg et al., 2010). Thus, the study aimed to evalua-
te the implementation of sustainable management to a
legal reserve with cerrado sensu stricto vegetation, as
support to the energy demand of a rural community in
the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state,
Brazil.
Materials and methods
The data of this study is from a Legal Reserve
area with cerrado sensu stricto vegetation, which has an
extension of 27.4 hectares, and is located at a rural area
called Camelas. Nowadays, about 70 families live in the
community. Therefore, there is a demand of approxima-
tely 10.67 m³.month
-1
of firewood and a representative
amount is removed from the nearby native vegetation. The
firewood is used to supply energy to the manufacturing
process of “rapadura”, a kind of Brazilian dessert.
The Camelas community, which has agriculture as
predominant activity, is located 50 km from the munici-
pality of Montes Claros - Minas Gerais state, Brazil, under
the coordinates -16.416168° latitude and -44.003954°
longitude (Figure 1). According to Köppen and Geiger
classification, the region climate is Aw, tropical with a dry
season. The mean annual temperature is 22.7°C, mean
Technical feasibility of forest management: a case study in a cerrado sensu stricto Legal Reserve in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil
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annual precipitation of 1,029 mm and an altitude of 906
m (Alvares et al., 2013).
Figure 1Study area located in the Camelas community Legal Reserve in Montes Claros city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
In order of achieve previous information from the
area, the forest inventory was carried out from systematic
samplings of 10 plots of 10 x 100 m (1000 m²), totaling
one hectare sampled (Moro and Martins, 2011). All trees
with diameter at 0.30 meters above ground (DAG) grea-
ter than 5 cm were measured. In addition, tree heights
were measured with telescopic measuring stick and the
botanical material were collected to later identification
through specialists, specific literature (Silva-Júnior, 2012)
and virtual herbaria (Flora do Brasil, 2019; JBRJ, 2019).
Hence, it was considered the APG IV classification system
(2016). All measured trees were labeled with metal tags
describing the plant and plot number.
Afterwards, it was calculated the wood volume,
Shannon and Weaver diversity index (H’), Pielou equa-
bility (J) (Magurran, 2011) and phytosociological para-
meters (species richness, absolute and relative density,
relative frequency, relative dominance and importance
value index) (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974).
The following equation (Eq. 1), proposed by
Rezende et al. (2006), was used to estimate the wood
volume to the Legal Reserve.
V= 0.000109 * DAG² + 0.000451 *DAG² * H R
2
= 98.02% ; S
yx
= 25% (Eq. 1)
Where: DAS: Diameter at 0.30 meters above ground (cm); H: Tree height (m); V: Volume (m3); R2; Coefficient of determination; Syx: Residual
standard error.
In order to assess the diameter heterogeneity,
the trees were distributed in twelve diametric classes,
considering an amplitude of 3 cm (Scolforo and Thiersch,
2004). Then, the De Liocourt quotient (q) (De Liocourt,
1898) was calculated using the ratio between the number
of individuals in successive classes after determining the
frequency (Hess et al., 2014).
To assess the diametric distribution pattern of
trees per hectare (Yj) by diameter class (Xi), it was fitted
the models of Meyer, Mervart and Weibull (Scolforo, 1998)
(Table 1). The use of probability density function, like
the models fitted to this study, allows to achieve infor-
mation that may lead to the planning of vegetation yield
as well as to simulate thinning procedures and ensure
the sustainable forest management. Thus, the chi-square
Campos, P. N. S. et al.
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test, with a significance level of 95%, was applied to
the frequencies found searching to analyze the adjusted
models adherence by exponential distribution (Souza
and Soares, 2013).
Table 1 – Diametric distribution models used to estimate the expected frequency in the Legal Reserve area in Montes
Claros city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
Model Equation
Meyer’s exponential
Nj = β
0
ϵβ1Dj
.ϵ
j
Mervart’s potential
Nj = β
0
D
j
β1
.ϵ
j
Weibull with two parameters F (Dj) = 1- exp
– (Dj/b)^y
Where: Nj is the number of trees per hectare in the j-th diameter class at 0.30 meters above ground (DAG); β
0
, β
1
, y: parameters to be estimated; F
(Dj) is the accumulated probability up to the j-th DAG class; ϵ: error for the j-th DAG class.
Lastly, regarding the individuals heights stratifi-
cation, they were split into nine classes with an amplitude
of one standard deviation (sd) (Souza and Soares, 2013).
Results and discussion
Considering the forest inventory procedure, it
was measured a total of 512 individuals, distributed in
34 species and 13 families. The population mean DAG
was equal to 7.87 cm and the maximum equal to 40.67
cm. In addition, the mean height of the individuals was
3.5 m and the maximum height was 12.0 m. The total
absolute density was 512 trees.ha
-1
and the basal area
of 3.72 m
2
.ha
-1
, values lower than those found in other
studies of cerrado sensu stricto.
The horizontal structure to our study presents an
unusual pattern to the vegetation type, when compared
to other studies, in which it is expected to find a balanced
diametric structure (Costa et al., 2010; Giácomo et al.,
2013). This result may be linked with possible anthropic
interventions such as agricultural and cattle raising ac-
tivities in which justifies the low intensity of individuals
(Paula et al., 2007).
As regard to the floristic aspects, the Combreta-
ceae family presented the highest number of individuals
(153), due to successive occurrence of the Terminalia
fagifolia Mart. species. However, the Fabaceae family was
the one that had the largest number of species (14). The
five species with highest importance value index (IVI) in
decreasing order were Terminalia fagifolia Mart.; Caryocar
brasiliense Cambess.; Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke;
Qualea multiflora Mart. and Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart.
ex Hayne (Table 2).
High density of T. fagifolia was detected in the
area, which may be associated with the morphology of
its fruit characterized as winged, allowing anemochory
dispersion, as well as by its irregular spatial distribution
(Ribeiro et al., 2018; Soares Neto et al., 2014). This species
is commonly found in the Cerrado, with its occurrence
in the Brazil southeast region being only in Minas Gerais
state. The T. fagifolia is a relevant species due its intrinsic
characteristics such as high wood density and durability,
as well as medicinal properties (Araújo et al., 2012; Flora
do Brasil, 2019; Mota et al., 2014). The second species
with great importance value index, C. brasiliense, has
great relevance for the Cerrado due to its economic and
cultural value. Nevertheless, this species is protected by
Law, being its suppression allowed only in specific cases
such as social interest, urban area and anthropized ru-
ral area until July 22, 2008 (Afonso et al., 2015; Minas
Gerais, 2012).
Species that have a relative density (RD) less
than or equal to 1% are considered rare (Almeida et al.,
1993; Pereira-Silva et al., 2004). We found in the area
20 species with RD less than 1%, not being able to be
management (Minas Gerais, 2013; Reis et al., 2013).
The Shannon diversity index (H’) was 2.61 nats.ind-¹
and the Pielou equability index (J) was 0.74. Also, the
studied area showed a species diversity minor than in
other studies in the same vegetation type, thus allowing
to infer that the legal reserve may have been explored
by the surrounding community (Silva Neto et al., 2016;
Costa et al., 2010).
Regarding the diametric distribution, the area
presented 80.47% of the individuals concentrated at the
first class, in which the central value is 6.5 cm in diameter
(Figure 2). As for the De Liocourt quotient, it showed a
non-constant value between classes (9.16; 3.75; 1.71;
1.17; 0.86; 0.88; 1.14; 2.33; 0.00; 0.00; 0.67), resulting
an average value of 1.97.
The diametric distribution presented the J - in-
verse pattern, which is expected for heterogeneous forests
in Brazil (Silva Neto et al., 2016). However, a minimal
number of trees was observed in the largest DAG classes,
besides to their absence in the 33.5 cm class of central
value. Similar results were found by Oliveira et al. (2015)
whom analyzed the cerrado sensu stricto vegetation in
western Bahia. The authors found a concentration of
96.33% of individuals in the first three diametric classes.
Considering the same vegetation in an area located in
Sete Lagoas - MG, 68% of the sampled individuals were
distributed in the first class (Pereira et al., 2013).
Technical feasibility of forest management: a case study in a cerrado sensu stricto Legal Reserve in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil
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Table 2 – Species phytosociology in the cerrado sensu stricto area located in the municipality of Montes Claros - Minas
Gerais, Brazil, in decreasing order of IVI.
Species N RD RF RDo IVI
Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc
153 29.88 7.35 42.55 79.79
Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke
52 10.16 5.88 4.20 20.24
Qualea multiflora Mart.
50 9.77 5.88 4.80 20.45
Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.
45 8.79 7.35 23.25 39.39
Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc.) Schott & Endl.
33 6.45 5.88 3.25 15.58
Aspidosperma macrocarpon Mart.
20 3.91 4.41 1.76 10.08
Aspidosperma subincanum Mart.
19 3.71 5.88 2.15 11.74
Dalbergia miscolobium Benth.
19 3.71 5.15 1.32 10.18
Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart.ex Hayne
18 3.52 5.15 3.63 12.30
Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth
17 3.32 4.41 1.34 9.07
Qualea grandiflora Mart.
13 2.54 3.68 0.91 7.13
Eugenia dysenterica DC.
6 1.17 3.68 0.45 5.29
Indeterminate 6 1.17 2.21 0.56 3.94
Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl.
6 1.17 1.47 0.83 3.47
Machaerium opacum Vogel
5 0.98 2.94 0.61 4.53
Machaerium acutifolium Vogel
5 0.98 2.94 0.41 4.33
Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk.
5 0.98 2.21 0.39 3.57
Enterolobium gummiferum (Mart). J.F. Macbr.
5 0.98 2.21 0.34 3.53
Dimophandra mollis Benth.
4 0.78 1.47 3.43 5.68
Hancornia speciosa Gomes
4 0.78 2.21 0.52 3.50
Plathymenia reticulata Benth.
4 0.78 2.21 0.28 3.27
Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Corville
3 0.59 1.47 0.27 2.33
Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.
3 0.59 1.47 0.18 2.23
Aspidosperma tomentosum Mart.
2 0.39 1.47 0.53 2.40
Anonna emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer.
2 0.39 1.47 0.32 2.18
Miconia ferruginata DC.
2 0.39 1.47 0.19 2.05
Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil.
2 0.39 1.47 0.18 2.04
Couepia grandiflora (Mart. & Zucc.) Benth
2 0.39 1.47 0.17 2.03
Schefflera macrocarpa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin
2 0.39 1.47 0.15 2.01
Himatanthus obovatus (Müll. Arg.) Woodson
1 0.20 0.74 0.74 1.67
Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos
1 0.20 0.74 0.09 1.02
Salvertia convallariaeodora A.St.-Hil.
1 0.20 0.74 0.08 1.01
Machaerium vilosumm Vogel.
1 0.20 0.74 0.06 0.99
Chamaecrista sp. H.S. Irwin & Barneby
1 0.20 0.74 0.06 0.99
Where: N= number of individuals; RD = relative density (%); RDo = relative dominance (%); RF = relative frequency (%); IVI = importance
value index (%).
Campos, P. N. S. et al.
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Figure 2 – Diameter classes (cm) of individuals sampled in the cerrado sensu stricto Legal Reserve area located in
Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
Where: N= number of individuals.
The community absence of balance is reflected
in the mean value of the De Liocourt quotient (Alves
Júnior et al., 2010; Hess et al., 2014). Thus, the values
discrepancy can mean the presence of a high mortality
rate and low recruitment between classes, especially
regarding the lack of individuals in the largest diametric
classes (Cunha and Silva Júnior, 2012). It is expected
an imbalance between the diameter classes to native
forests, with a high concentration of individuals in the
lower classes (Calixto Júnior et al., 2011; Silva Neto
et al., 2016). However, areas with a higher degree of
conservation tend to be in close proximity to balanced
distribution. Instead, the study region is characterized
by not favorable edaphoclimatic conditions, and this fact
may be not allowing a greater increment in the area, thus
justifying the presence of a greater number of individuals
in the first classes and resulting in a low volumetric yield
(Ávila et al., 2014; Lima et al., 2013).
According to the diametric distribution models
fitted using the observed frequency (OF) within each
class, it is observed that the Meyer model presented the
lowest frequencies in relation to the frequencies observed
in the study, since all results were statistically significant,
presenting p-values <0.05. Thus, the model does not
describe the tree community behavior, as it presents a
discrepancy regarding the observed frequency, which re-
sults in an unfeasible forest management implementation.
Moreover, none of the models represents correctly the
vegetal formation behavior, and therefore did not present
an efficient precision in adjusting distributions (Table 3).
This result may be associated with the heterogeneity of
diameters present in the sample (Barros et al., 1979)
(Figure 3).
Table 3 – Chi-square test for the diametric distribution models used in the study in the cerrado sensu stricto Legal
Reserve area located in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
Model χ² test
Meyer 2,190.12
*
Mervart 554.36
*
Weibull 37.64
*
Where: * significant Chi-square (χ²) test for α = 0.05.
Concerning to the height stratification, it is possi-
ble to observe that 80.86% of the trees are concentrated
in the first and second classes. Thus, the stratification of
height allowed to predict about the height dominance in
lowest classes and this result is not an expected distribu-
tion pattern for cerrado sensu stricto, since it is usual to
find a normal distribution (Pereira et al., 2013) (Figure
4).
The estimated wood volume per hectare was
79.9152 and considering the total Legal Reserve
area, it was 2,189.6765 m³. Nevertheless, the estimated
wood volume includes individuals of the species Caryo-
car brasiliense Cambess and Ipê Amarelo of the genus
Handroanthus, which are protected by Law and their
suppression is not allowed (Minas Gerais, 2012). It also
includes species whose occurrence in the studied area is
considered rare.
Based on the results, Cerrado management legis-
lation of the state of Minas Gerais state and aiming to meet
the wood demand to the community in the generation of
Technical feasibility of forest management: a case study in a cerrado sensu stricto Legal Reserve in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil
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energy, it can be inferred that initially there is a need
to implement conservation and restoration measures
for the Legal Reserve area, since this possibly suffered
pressures imposed by the surrounding community. Thus,
the implementation of sustainable management aiming
at the wood extraction to energy supply energy in the
process of manufacturing “rapadura”, becomes unfeasible.
Figure 3 – Observed frequency according to the adjustment of the diametric distribution models for the cerrado sensu
stricto Legal Reserve located in Montes Claros city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
Where: OF is the observed frequency.
Figure 4 – Height classes (m) of individuals sampled in the cerrado sensu stricto Legal Reserve area located in Montes
Claros city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
Where: N= number of individuals.
Considering the current volumetric stock
(2,189.6765 m³) and a 10-year cycle for wood harvesting
(as established by law), there is a gross supply of 18.2473
m³. month
-
¹ of firewood. According to the Cerrado mana-
gement legislation, it is prohibits the clearcuting of the
rare species as well as seed-bearing trees because they
must be protected so the environmental sustainability of
forest management, since the Cerrado requires a longer
time for its recovery (Líbano and Felfili, 2006; Rezende
et al., 2005). Thus, when considering that in this gross
Campos, P. N. S. et al.
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Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 12, p. 01–10, https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2020.20601
monthly volumetric stock, there are species that are not
allowed to be cutting according to the law, it appears that
this volumetric stock is not enough to sustainably meet
the demand (10.67 m
3
.month
-1
of firewood) informed
by the rural community.
Conclusion
The implementation of a forest management to
the Legal Reserve area is not viable, as it does not pre-
sent sustainability for the objective. Among the species
identified, approximately 59% are considered as rare
species, which do not allow to proceed a clearcut of them.
In addition, the basal area indicates a low degree of site
occupation and a structure unable to provide the necessary
wood turnover. The selective cutting would interfere in
the community’s resilience, affecting its dynamics and
ecological processes, generating an imbalance in the
vegetation.
Acknowledgments
The authors express the gratitude to the Institute
of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais
(UFMG) and the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) for
the support and infrastructure to develop of the study.
Funding
This study was supported in part by the Coorde-
nação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior
- Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. Also, we thank to
the Pró-Reitoria de Extensão from the University of Minas
Gerais.
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