CADERNO DE CIÊNCIAS AGRÁRIAS
Agrarian Sciences Journal
Successive crops of lettuce fertilized with organic compost produced from cellulose paper
residues
Rejane Pereira de Souza
1
; Leidivan Almeida Frazão
2
; Maria das Dores Magalhães Veloso
3
; Regynaldo Arruda
Sampaio
4
; Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes
5*
Doi: https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2021.29084
Abstract
New technologies must ensure that the natural resources used can somehow return to the environment in an advan-
tageous way. The objective of this study was to evaluate organic compost produced from cattle manure and cellulose
paper residues and lettuce production. In the organic compost the Pb and Cd concentrations were below the limits of
quantification by the methodology used. The organic compost was evaluated in two consecutive lettuce crops. The first
cultivation was carried out in a completely randomized design in the 4x3+1 scheme with four replicates: four doses
of organic compost, three different organic compost and additional treatment, without addition of organic compost.
The second cultivation was carried out 90 days after the first one, without additional of fertilizers. In the soil, there
was an increase in pH, CEC, SOC, P, K, Ca and Mg, after 2 consecutive crops. Significative concentrations of Ni, Cr,
Pb and Cd not were found in the plants in both crops. The use of organic compost from cellulose paper residues in
agricultural improved soil fertility and lettuce production, being the highest yields obtained in the second crop.
Key words: Composting. Printing inks. Recycled paper.
Cultivos sucessivos de alface adubada com composto orgânico de resíduos de papel
Resumo
As novas tecnologias devem garantir que os recursos naturais utilizados possam, de alguma forma, retornar ao meio
ambiente de maneira vantajosa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de compostos orgânicos produzidos a
partir de esterco bovino, resíduos de papel celulósico e a produção de alface. Nos compostos orgânicos, as concentrações
de Pb e Cd ficaram abaixo dos limites de quantificação do método utilizado. Os compostos orgânicos foram avaliados
em dois cultivos consecutivos de alface. O primeiro cultivo foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado,
no esquema 4x3+1, com quatro repetições: quatro doses de composto orgânico, três diferentes compostos orgânicos e
um tratamento adicional, sem adição de composto orgânico. O segundo cultivo foi realizado 90 dias após o primeiro,
sem adição de fertilizantes. No solo, a adição de compostos orgânicos aumentou o pH, CTC, COS, P, K, Ca e Mg, após
2 dois consecutivos. Não foram encontradas concentrações significativas de Ni, Cr, Pb e Cd nas plantas, nos dois. O
uso de compostos orgânicos produzidos a partir de resíduos de papel melhorou a fertilidade do solo e a produção de
alface, sendo as maiores produções obtidos no segundo cultivo.
Palavras chave: Compostagem. Resíduo de papel. Tintas para impressão.
1
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Montes Claros, MG. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3647-9952
2
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Montes Claros, MG. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6848-9007
3
Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros. Montes Claros, MG. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2692-0249
4
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Montes Claros, MG. Brasil..
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3214-6111
5
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Montes Claros, MG. Brasil.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9877-1924
*Autor para correspondência: luizmcmg@gmail.com
Recebido para publicação em 12 de janeiro de 2020. Aceito para publicação em 27 de janeiro de 2020
e-ISSN: 2447-6218 / ISSN: 2447-6218 / © 2009, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Todos os direitos reservados.
Souza, R. P. et al.
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Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 13, p. 01–07, https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2021.29084
Introduction
Brazil is one of the largest producers of cellulose
paper in the world, being the largest in South America
(Silva et al., 2010).
However, the rates of paper recovery
after use are still modest when compared to the rates
realized by other countries. This phenomenon is linked to
the lack of efficient policies and the cultural behavior of
the population that has not yet incorporated sustainable
habits into its routine (Gonela et al., 2015).
Composting can be used as a form of final disposal
of cellulose paper residues, as long as it complies with
the determinations established in the current Brazilian
legislation that deals with this theme. However, when
carried out in piles and with the use of a large amount
of nitrogenous material, it can cause bad odors and en-
vironmental contamination. In this sense, composting in
pots can be an alternative for the production of organic
compounds in different environments and on a small
scale.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most con-
sumed vegetables in Brazil, can be used as a bioindicator
to validate the quality of organic compost (Kiehl, 2010).
The organic compost produced from cellulose paper re-
sidues may contain substances toxic to the environment,
present in the inks used for printing.
Considering the scarcity of studies on the effects
of organic compost produced from white and printed
cellulose paper residues, the objective of this study was
to evaluate organic compost produced from cattle manure
and cellulose paper residues and lettuce production.
Material and Methods
The experiment was carried out in Montes Claros,
Minas Gerais, Brazil (16°44 ‘06 “S; 43°51’ 42” W, altitude:
648 m). The climate of the region is AW type (Köppen
climate classification), with an annual precipitation of
approximately 1,060 mm and an average annual tem-
perature of 24.20°C. For the production of organic com-
post, an experiment was conducted in plastic containers
with capacity of 6 liters. The experimental design was
completely randomized with four treatments and eight
replications. The treatments were: only cattle manure
compost (CMC), cattle manure and white cellulose paper
residues (edges of printed documents or parts not used
for printing on documents) (CMW), cattle manure and
cellulose paper residues printed with black ink and xe-
rographic material with black ink (CMP) and fresh cattle
manure (FCM) as an additional treatment (control).
The cellulose paper residues were cut into pieces
of 3 cm
2
and mixed with dry cattle manure in a 4:1 ratio.
The initial mass of the raw materials was 1,750 g, packed
in 6 liters plastic containers: 350 g of cut cellulose paper
and 1,400 g of cattle manure. The containers received
water until it reached an adequate moisture, according to
the “hand test” (Nunes et al., 2010). During the process,
the mixture (cattle manure and cellulose paper residues)
was turned over weekly for oxygenation and the moisture
was controlled by weekly weighing the pots and reple-
nishing the water when necessary. The temperature was
evaluated using a dipstick thermometer.
At the end of the process (28 weeks) samples of
organic compost were collected from each container to
determine the C/N ratio, pH, nutrients, lead and cadmium
concentrations (Tedesco et al., 1995).
For the study of the effects of organic compounds
on soil fertility and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production,
two consecutive crops were carried out. The lettuce plants
were growing in plastic containers filled with 3 liters of
an Oxisol, collected in the superficial layer of native ve-
getation (Brazilian Savana). Soil characterization: pH =
6,3; available P = 1,70 mg kg
-1
; exchangeable K = 96 mg
kg
-1
, exchangeable Ca = 2,10 cmolc kg
-1
, exchangeable
Mg = 1,10 cmolc kg
-3
, cation exchange capacity = 4,21
cmolc kg
-3
; soil organic carbon = 11,6 g kg
-1
.
The experimental design was completely rando-
mized, in a factorial scheme 3x4+1, with an additional
treatment and four replications, as follows: three organic
fertilizers (organic compost from cattle manure, organic
compost from cattle manure and white cellulose paper and
organic compost from cattle manure and printed cellulo-
se paper), four doses of organic fertilizer, equivalent to
20, 40, 80 and 160 Mg ha
-1
and an additional treatment
without the addition of organic fertilizer (Control). All
treatments received a fertilization with 220 mg dm
-3
of
phosphorus in the form of single superphosphate.
For the first growing, the soil of each container
was incubated with the respective treatments and the
phosphate fertilizer for a period of fifteen days, keeping
the moisture close to the field capacity. The lettuce see-
dlings were produced in Styrofoam trays and, after 30
days of sowing, two seedlings were transplanted per pot.
After 30 days of growing in containers, the plants were
harvested and the fresh matter production of lettuce leaves
and the nutrients and heavy metals concentrations were
evaluated (Malavolta et al., 1997).
To evaluate the residual effect of organic compost,
a second growing lettuce was carried out at 90 days after
the harvest of the plants from the first experiment, in the
same containers. The conduction of the second growing
was similar to that of the first. At the end of the second
experiment, soil samples were collected from each con-
tainer for chemical analysis (Teixeira et al., 2017).
For the organic compost experiment, the data
were subjected to analysis of variance and the treatment
means compared by the Scott Knott test (p <0.05). The
data referring to the growing lettuce experiment were
Successive crops of lettuce fertilized with organic compost produced from cellulose paper residues
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Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 13, p. 01–07, https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2021.29084
submitted to analysis of variance and the means of the
additional treatment were compared with the means
of organic compost by the Dunnet test (p <5%). The
means of organic compost were compared with each
other by the Scott Knott test (p <5%). For the doses of
organic compost, regression equations were adjusted.
The statistical software used in all statistical analyzes
was R version 3.3.0.
Results and Discussion
During the experimental period, the room tem-
perature ranged from 26 to 37
o
C, while in the mixture
(cattle manure and cellulose paper residues) it ranged
from 21.8 to 32.6°C. The temperature of the mixture close
to room temperature can be explained by the frequent
turning of and by the low amount of nitrogen in the
cellulose paper residues. Organic compost produced in
small volume and with material from cellulosic origin,
in general present slow degradation due to the low me-
tabolism of the microorganisms involved in the process
Kawatoko; Rizk, 2010).
Regarding moisture, at the end of the process,
the fresh cattle manure had a lower moisture content
than organic compost (Table 1). The organic compost
from cellulose paper did not differ from each other in
terms of final moisture content. The greater value for
the compost produced from only cattle manure can be
attributed to its composition, which retains more water
than paper.
Table 1 – Chemical analysis of fresh manure (FCM), organic compost from cattle manure (CMC), organic compost
from cattle manure and white cellulose paper residues (CMW) and organic compost from cattle manure and
printed cellulose paper residues (CMP).
Moisture pH C/N C N P K Mg S Ca
----%--- ----------------------------%--------------------------------------
FCM 20.0a 6.80a 13.19a 22.03a 1.67a <1 4.8a 0.72a <1 1.45a
CMC 30.4bB 7.76bB 13.63aA 27.41bA 2.01bA <1 4.1aA 0.66aA <1 1.02bC
CMW 23.5aA 8.32bB 14.08aA 20.00aB 1.42bB <1 3.5bB 0.54bB <1 3.42bA
CMC 21.2aA 8.37bB 13.82aA 26.27bA 1.90bA <1 3.3bB 0.54bB <1 3.10bB
B Cu Mn Fe Zn Cd Pb
---------------------------------------------------- % ---------------------------------------------------
FCM <0.1 <0.05 <0.05 1.36a <0.05 <0.2 <0.2
CMC <0.1 <0.05 <0.05 1.22aA <0.05 <0.2 <0.2
CMW <0.1 <0.05 <0.05 1.25bA <0.05 <0.2 <0.2
CMC <0.1 <0.05 <0.05 1.04bB <0.05 <0.2 <0.2
Lowercase letters in the columns compare the withnes the other treatments by the Dunnet test (p <5%). Upper case letters in the columns compare
the CMC, CMW and CMP treatments by the Scott Knott test (p <5%). Averages followed by the same letter do not differ.
The pH values of organic compost were higher
than those of fresh cattle manure (Table 1). Raw materials
with initial acid pH can produce organic compost with
alkaline pH (Kiehl, 2010). According to this author, the
microorganisms can use some organic acids as substrate
and increases the final pH of the organic compost.
Regarding the composition of organic compost,
the nutrient in highest concentration was C followed by
K, Ca, N and Mg, in that order (Table 1). All treatments
showed very low concentrations of P, B, Cu, Mn and
Zn, below the detection limit of the method used in this
study (Table 1). For iron, fresh manure showed higher
concentrations than organic compounds (Table 1). In
relation to the potentially toxic metals, Cd and Pb, the
concentrations were below the method detection limit
(0.2 mg kg
-1
).
For soil samples collected after the second lettu-
ce plants harvest, it was found that the pH, soil organic
carbon (SOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and nu-
trients, except N, Zn, Fe, Ni and Cu, were higher in the
treatment with organic compost (Table 2). The organic
compost from cellulose paper residues provided greater
CEC over time, after two lettuce plants growing, possibly
due to the gradual release of carbon in the cellulose paper
residues.
Regarding the doses of organic compost, it was
found that the pH, CEC, SOC, Ca, Mg, P and Zn values
increased linearly, while there was no significant effect
on the values of N, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd (Table 3).
Ramos et al. (2009), Abreu et al. (2010) and Cardoso
et al. (2011) also found an improvement in soil fertility
amendments with higher doses of organic compost after
Souza, R. P. et al.
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lettuce plants growing. Other authors point out that the
amounts of nutrients made available by organic compost
are proportional to the doses applied (Damatto et al.,
2006; Magro et al., 2010; Cardoso et al., 2011).
Table 2 – Soil attributes and nutrient content after second lettuce crop.
Trat. pH P K Ca Mg T SOC
------- mg kg
-1
------ ------------ cmolc kg
-1
------------- --%--
Control 6.88a 5.37a 49.75a 2.67a 1.01a 4.52a 0.98a
CMW 7.68bA 6.65bB 462.56bA 3.50bA 1.93bA 7.17bA 1.64bA
CMP 7.94bA 6.96bA 427.63bA 3.36bA 1.74bB 6.75bB 1.68bA
CMC 7.56bA 7.01bA 388.19bB 3.15bA 1.54bC 6.33bC 1.56bA
Trat. Zn Fe Mn Ni Cu Cr Pb Cd
Trat. -------------------------------------------------------mg kg
-1
--------------------------------------------------------
Control 6.54a 70.76a 49.61 0.33a 1.06a NQ 7.45a ND
CMW 7.60aA 51.97bB 53.12 0.36aA 0.98aA 4.85A 9.68bA ND
CMP 6.89aA 53.18bB 55.82 0.36aA 1.07aA 2.04B 10.18bA ND
CMC 6.45aA 63.96aA 50.24 0.31aA 0.99aA NQ 10.80bA ND
Control; CMW= compost from cattle manure and white cellulose paper; CWP = compost from cattle manure and printed cellulose paper; CMC
= compost from cattle manure. NQ = not quantified, ND = not detected. Lower case letters in the columns compare the control with the other
treatments using the Dunnet test (p <5%). Capital letters in the columns compare the CMW, CMP and CMC treatments using the Scott Knott test
(p <5%). The averages followed by the same letter do not differ statistically.
On the other hand, Fe and K values were lower
at higher doses of organic compost (Table 3). For catio-
nic micronutrients and heavy metals, immobilization by
complexation reactions of these elements with humic
substances present in organic compost can occur (Bezerra
et al., 2009).
Table 3 – Regression equations adjusted for the soil chemical attributes after the second crop of the lettuce as a function
of the different organic compost doses.
Attributes Equation R
2
Attributes Equation R
2
pH
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 7.145 + 0.0042**x
y = 7.293 + 0.0049*x
y = 7.095 + 0.0037**x
R² = 0.81
R² = 0.78
R² = 0.89
N
(%)
RPB
RPI
EPC
y = 0.1ns
y = 0.1ns
y = 0.1ns
-
-
-
P
(mg kg
-1
)
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 5.082 + 0.0146**x
y = 5.882 + 0.0085**x
y = 5.281 + 0.0156**x
R² = 0.85
R² = 0.88
R² = 0.99
Zn
(mg kg
-1
)
RPB
RPI
EPC
y =6.391 + 0.0111*x
y =6.318 + 0.0077*x
y =4.373 + 0.0272**x
R² = 0.74
R² = 0.73
R² = 0.85
K
(mg kg
-1
)
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 17.894 - 4.421**x
y = 76.219 - 4.7585**x
y = 29.356 - 3.8873**x
R² = 0.98
R² = 0.95
R² = 0.98
Ni
(mg kg
-1
)
RPB
RPI
EPC
Y = 0.35ns
Y = 0.35ns
Y = 0.31ns
-
-
-
Ca
(cmolc kg
-1
)
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 2.867 + 0.0039**x
y = 2.744 + 0.0034**x
y = 2.744 + 0.0034**x
R² = 0.87
R² = 0.88
R² = 0.98
Cu
(mg kg
-1
)
RPB
RPI
EPC
y = 0.99ns
Y= 1.01ns
Y =1.01ns
-
-
-
Mg
(cmolc kg
-1
)
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 1.126 + 0.0069**x
y = 1.034 + 0.0062**x
y = 0.898 + 0.006**x
R² = 0.96
R² = 0.98
R² = 0.98
Cr
(mg kg
-1
)
RPB
RPI
EPC
Y = 3.88ns
Y = 1.63ns
ND
-
-
-
CEC
(cmolc kg
-1
)
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 4.606 + 0.0226**x
y = 4.356 + 0.0217**x
y = 4.266 + 0.0189**x
R² = 0.99
R² = 0.99
R² = 0.99
Pb
(mg kg
-1
)
RPB
RPI
EPC
Y =9.23ns
Y =9.63ns
Y =10.94ns
-
-
-
SOC
(%)
CMW
CMP
CMC
y = 0.873+ 0.0071**x
y = 0.876 + 0.0074**x
y = 0.856 + 0.0065**x
R² = 0.99
R² = 0.99
R² = 0.99
Cd
(mg kg
-1
)
RPB
RPI
EPC
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
CMW= compost from cattle manure and white cellulose paper; CWP = compost from cattle manure and printed cellulose paper; CMC = compost
from cattle manure. NQ = not quantified, ND = not detected.
Successive crops of lettuce fertilized with organic compost produced from cellulose paper residues
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The production of fresh matter of lettuce leaves
and roots, in the first harvest, was lower in the con-
trol treatment and higher in the treatment with organic
compost produced from printed cellulose paper residues
(Table 4). In the second harvest, the production of fresh
matter in the control treatment was lower and there were
no significant differences between the organic compost
(Table 4).
The results obtained in the first and second crops
indicate that organic compost produced from materials
rich in cellulose and lignin gradually make nutrients
available (Bonela et al., 2017). According to Peixoto
Filho et al., 2013), for lettuce, and Lanna et al., 2018),
for radish, found a greater increase in production in the
second growing, due to the greater availability of nutrients
over time in soils amendments with organic fertilizers.
Table 4 – Regression equations adjusted for fresh matter production of leaves and roots of lettuce plants in two conse-
cutive crops as a function of the doses of different organic compost.
Trat. Equação R
2
Maximum pro-
duction. (g/
plant)
Dose for maximum pro-
duction (Mg há
-1
)
First crop
Fresh matter of leaves
CMW y = 34.6233+0.0273*x-0.0013*x
2
0.79 34.80 10.5
CMP y = 26.9454+0.4075**x-0.0021**x
2
0.95 46.1 97.02
CMC y = 38.5832+0.0081*x-0.0015*x
2
0.78 38.59 2.7
Fresh matter of roots
CMW y = 17.588-0.0706*x 0.79 17.59 0
CMP y = 14.142+0.1513**x-0.0008**x
2
0.85 21.29 95.5
CMC y = 19.969+0.0584**x-0.0011**x
2
0.81 20.74 26.5
Second crop
Fresh matter of leaves
CMW y = 28.5062+0.4793**x 0.79 105.19 160
CMP y = 26.1832+0.4628**x 0.97 100.23 160
CMC y = 30.8832+0.4473**x 0.83 102.45 160
Fresh matter of roots
CMW y = 18.895+0.2051**x-0.0026*x
2
0.80 22.94 39.50
CMP y = 14.648+0.1275**x-0.0007**x
2
0.81 20.46 91.00
CMC y = 20.475+0.0447**x-0.0011**x
2
0.82 20.93 20.50
Trat. Fresh matter of leaves (g/plant) Fresh matter of roots (g/plant)
First crop Second crop First crop Second crop
Control 27.50a 20.00a 15.25a 15.95a
CMW 27.00aB 66.56bA 12.88aA 23.22bB
CMP 40.06bA 62.44bA 17.88aA 26.21bA
CMC 28.75aB 67.13bA 16.50aA 20.53bC
Control; CMW= compost from cattle manure and white cellulose paper; CWP = compost from cattle manure and printed cellulose paper; CMC
= compost from cattle manure. NQ = not quantified, ND = not detected. Lower case letters in the columns compare the control with the other
treatments using the Dunnet test (p <5%). Capital letters in the columns compare the CMW, CMP and CMC treatments using the Scott Knott test
(p <5%). The averages followed by the same letter do not differ statistically
Regarding the doses of organic compost, it was
verified in the first harvest that the production of fresh
lettuce leaves was adjusted to a quadratic model (Table
4). In the second harvest, the production of fresh matter
increased linearly with the doses of organic composts
(Table 4). These results can be explained by the slow
release of nutrients from organic compost and the rela-
tively short cycle of lettuce plants (Ramos et al., 2009;
Kano et al., 2011; Yagioka et al., 2014) In addition to
the characteristics of the organic compost, it is important
to consider the initial soil fertility. Lanna et al.
(2018),
studying the residual effect of the organic compost for
Souza, R. P. et al.
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radish, after the chicory harvest, found a linear increase
in the production of radish plants in the highest doses
of organic compost in high fertility soils, while in low
fertility soils there were no significant responses to in-
creased doses of organic compost. In this context, it can
be inferred that the greater production of lettuce in the
second crop can be attributed to the construction of soil
fertility, once the nutrients were made available with the
mineralization of organic compost over time.
According to the chemical analysis of the leaves
of lettuce plants, there were few differences between
treatments (Table 5).
The concentrations of N, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni and
Cr were higher in the treatments with organic compost
in the first crop, while the levels of P, K and S were higher
in the second crop. The analysis of nutrients in the plant
indicates that the increase in the dose of organic compost
improved the soil CEC and favored a more balanced uptake
nutrients by plants. As a consequence, the productivity
of lettuce plants increased and the availability of heavy
metals decreased in the second harvest, possibly due to the
complexation reactions of metals with humic substances.
The results obtained in this research allow us
to conclude that the organic compost improved the soil
fertility and gradually made the nutrients available over
time and did not present a risk of soil and plant conta-
mination by lead and cadmium.
Table 5 – Concentrations of nutrients and metals in lettuce leaves in two consecutive crops.
First crop (%)
C N P K Ca Mg S
Control
CMW
CMP
CMC
48.89a
45.43aA
43.70aA
45.76aA
3.06a
3.98bA
3.41bA
3.50bA
0.41a
0.47aA
0.43aA
0.44aA
2.68a
2.54aA
2.56aA
2.77aA
0.95a
0.76bA
0.77bA
0.63bA
0.30a
0.28aA
0.25aA
0.26aA
0.27a
0.29aA
0.26aA
0.25aA
Second crop (%)
C N P K Ca Mg S
Control
CMW
CMP
CMC
51.21a
45.69aA
46.88aA
47.39aA
1.35a
2.60bA
2.27bA
2.46bA
0.22a
0.32bA
0.35bA
0.37bA
1.90a
2.73bA
2.56bA
2.59bA
0.70a
0.79aA
0.80aA
0.73aA
0.19a
0.24aA
0.22aA
0.24aA
0.16a
0.26bA
0.21bA
0.25bA
First crop (%)
Cu Fe Zn Mn B Ni Pb Cd Cr
Control 3.60a 186.25a 50.25a 318.90a 17.50a 0.60a 0 0 1.3a
CMW 4.85bA 203.03bC 39.21bA 93.76bB 12.57aA 0.15bA 0 0 0.10bC
CMP 4.58bA 247.02bB 33.32bA 102.98bB 13.60aA 0.14bA 0 0 0.28bB
CMC 4.74bA 425.72bA 34.66bA 153.50bA 11.48aA 0.17bA 0 0 0.48bA
Second crop (%)
Cu Fe Zn Mn B Ni Pb Cd Cr
Control 1.60a 89.25a 19.15a 53.00a 15.75a 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
CMW 2.41bA 124.91bA 19.55aA 41.11aA 16.60aA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
CMP 2.43bA 147.88bA 19.55aA 43.10aA 16.59aA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
CMC 2.79bA 135.14bA 21.53aA 55.07aA 18.56aA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Control; CMW= compost from cattle manure and white cellulose paper; CWP = compost from cattle manure and printed cellulose paper; CMC
= compost from cattle manure. NQ = not quantified, ND = not detected. Lower case letters in the columns compare the control with the other
treatments using the Dunnet test (p <5%). Capital letters in the columns compare the CMW, CMP and CMC treatments using the Scott Knott test
(p <5%). The averages followed by the same letter do not differ statistically
Successive crops of lettuce fertilized with organic compost produced from cellulose paper residues
7
Cad. Ciênc. Agrá., v. 13, p. 01–07, https://doi.org/10.35699/2447-6218.2021.29084
Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the National Pro-
gram for Academic Cooperation of the Coordination for
the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES
/ Brazil), by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific
and Technological Development (CNPq / Brazil) and by
the Minas Gerais State Foundation for Research Support
(FAPEMIG / Brazil).
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest. The
founding sponsors had no role in the design of the stu-
dy; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data;
in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to
publish the results.
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