Conceitualização e modelo da educação STEAM

o que é (e o que não é) essa abordagem educacional?

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-3652.2023.44946

Palavras-chave:

Modelos educacionais, Currículo integrado, Abordagem interdisciplinar

Resumo

STEAM é uma abordagem educacional recente que visa o ensino interdisciplinar de ciência, tecnologia, engenharia, artes/humanidades e matemática. A literatura relata confusão conceitual que frequentemente desvia a prática e a pesquisa de STEAM para questões relacionadas a atividades ou contextos específicos. Portanto, realizamos uma revisão narrativa de artigos indexados em Web of Science (WoS) para elucidar a história, epistemologia e divergências da educação STEAM. Como estratégia, primeiro nos centramos em documentos que pudessem oferecer uma visão panorâmica do objeto de estudo – revisões da literatura e artigos que discutem modelos teóricos de STEAM. Identificamos junções essenciais de discussão e expandimos a revisão. Articulamos racionalidades sobre por que STEAM não é uma evolução do STEM, uma metodologia de ensino ou um sinônimo de interdisciplinaridade. Além disso, discutimos a adequação da interdisciplinaridade em STEAM, que é fortemente apoiada pelas disciplinas e suas interseções; em vez da transdisciplinaridade, em que o conhecimento permanece difuso dentro de um todo holístico. Diferenciamos os conceitos disciplinas STEAM (lista das cinco áreas de conhecimento), atividades STEAM (unidade de ensino interdisciplinar de pelo menos duas disciplinas STEAM) e a educação STEAM (abordagem educacional de interdisciplinaridade entre todas as cinco disciplinas). Finalmente, definimos e propusemos um modelo para STEAM em formato de mesa que destaca duas condições necessárias e suficientes – interdisciplinaridade e as cinco áreas do acrônimo. O modelo permite visualizar a pluralidade de metodologias de ensino e objetivos educacionais consistentes com STEAM.

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Biografia do Autor

Jefferson Rodrigues-Silva, Federal Institute of Minas Gerais, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arcos, Minas Gerais, Brazil

A professor from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Federal Institute of Minas Gerais (IFMG), Campus Arcos, Brazil. PhD in Education at the University of Girona (UdG), Spain. Member of the Grup de Recerca en Educació Científica i Ambiental (GRECA) at the UdG.

Ángel Alsina, University of Girona, Department of Subject-Specific Didactics, Girona, Catalonia, Spain

Full Professor from the Department of Subject-Specific Didactics and Director of the Cátedra de Didática das Matemáticas M. Antònia Canals at the University of Girona (UdG), Spain. Principal researcher of the Grup de Recerca en Educació Científica i Ambiental (GRECA) from UdG.

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02-08-2023

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RODRIGUES-SILVA, J.; ALSINA, Ángel. Conceitualização e modelo da educação STEAM: o que é (e o que não é) essa abordagem educacional?. Texto Livre, Belo Horizonte-MG, v. 16, p. e44946, 2023. DOI: 10.1590/1983-3652.2023.44946. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufmg.br/index.php/textolivre/article/view/44946. Acesso em: 18 jun. 2024.